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Exam material

List of exam questions

General Surgery

2019

  1. History of surgery, stages of the development of surgery.
  2. Theory of surgical deontology.
  3. Types of soft bandages.
  4. The concept of antiseptics. Types of antiseptics.
  5. The main antiseptic agents, their application. The role of antiseptics in the development of surgery.
  6. The concept of aseptic. Methods. Control of sterility.
  7. Suture, dressing and surgical material. His sterilization, checking for sterility.
  8. Preparation and sterilization of suture material.
  9. Sterilization of syringes, catheters, instruments, optical instruments, gloves. Storage.
  10. The process of the operation in terms of asepsis.
  11. Preparation of patients for surgery. Preparation and processing of the operating field.
  12. Preparation of surgeon's hands for surgery / history and methods.
  13. History of blood transfusion. Teaching about blood groups.
  14. Rhesus factor and its significance in blood transfusion.
  15. Methods for determining blood group affiliation.
  16. Indications and contraindications to blood transfusion.
  17. Goals and indications for blood transfusion.
  18. Methods and types of blood transfusion depending on the purposes and aims.
  19. Complications and reactions in blood transfusion.
  20. Components of blood, drugs from the blood, blood substitutes. Indications for transfusion.
  21. Classification of bleeding by anatomical, etiological, clinical signs.
  22. Danger of bleeding depending on the degree of speed, age, sex, etc. moments.
  23. Diagnosis of internal bleeding. General and local symptoms.
  24. Types and methods of bleeding arrest.
  25. Methods of examination of a surgical patient.
  26. Preparation for surgery and postoperative care for elderly and senile patients.
  27. Surgical operations. Types of surgical operations.
  28. Postoperative care for patients operated on the gastrointestinal tract.
  29. Postoperative complications in the respiratory tract (prevention, treatment).
  30. Nutrition of patients in the postoperative period.
  31. The most frequent complications of the postoperative period, causes, control and prevention.
  32. Wounds. General and local symptoms.
  33. Wounds. Classification. First aid in case of wounds.
  34. Primary and secondary wound healing.
  35. Biology of wounds.
  36. Basic principles of wound healing.
  37. Primary surgical debridement of wounds. Indications and contraindications. Technique of execution.
  38. Technique of application and removal of sutures.
  39. Secondary sutures. Types. Indications.
  40. Treatment of wounds (local and general, depending on the phase of the wound process).
  41. Shock, collapse, fainting (clinic, treatment).
  42. Traumatic shock (the role of Russian scientists). Treatment.
  43. Intensive therapy in surgical practice.
  44. Terminal states. Resuscitation during cardiac arrest.
  45. Intra-arterial blood transfusion. Indications and contraindications. Technique of procidure.
  46. Fractures. Classification. Clinic. Diagnostics.
  47. First aid and transportation of patients with fractures of tubular bones, spine and tremor of the brain.
  48. Principles and methods of treatment of fractures of bones.
  49. Methods of conservative treatment of bone fractures. Gypsum technique. A sample for the suitability of gypsum. Types of gypsum dressings.
  50. Dislocations. General principles of treatment.
  51. Closed injuries of the internal organs of the abdomen.
  52. Closed thoracic injuries.
  53. Pneumothorax. Classification. First aid.
  54. Burns and their treatment. Complications of burns
  55. First aid for burns. Clinic of burn disease.
  56. Frostbites / clinic and treatment. Electrical injury. General and local reaction. First aid.
  57. Deadness. Classification by etiology and pathogenesis. (Necrosis, gangrene, ulcers, bedsores, fistula).
  58. Dry and moist gangrene. Patanatomy, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.
  59. General doctrine of surgical infection.
  60. Surgical infection. Classification.
  61. Inflammation. General and local body reaction.
  62. Infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
  63. The erysipelas and erysipeloid. Clinic, treatment, prevention.
  64. Phlegmon, abscess. Clinic. Treatment.
  65. Acute mastitis, hydradenitis. Clinic. Treatment.
  66. Osteomyelitis. Classification. Hematogenous osteomyelitis. Clinic, treatment.
  67. Acute purulent infection of fingers and hands.
  68. Infection of cellular formations / mediastinitis, paranephritis, paraproctitis /.
  69. Sepsis. Etiology, pathogenesis, classification.
  70. Clinic of sepsis. Treatment.
  71. Gas phlegmon and gas gangrene. Clinic, treatment, prevention.
  72. Tetanus. Clinic. Prevention. Treatment.
  73. ​​General principles of treatment and prevention of surgical tuberculosis.
  74. Anthrax. Clinic, treatment, prevention.
  75. Actinomycosis. Clinic, treatment, prevention.
  76. Clinical classification of tumors. Differential diagnostics.
  77. Malignant tumors: stages, forms, growth. Concepts of ablastics and antilobistics.
  78. Methods of diagnosis of malignant tumors.
  79. Basic principles and methods of treatment of benign and malignant tumors.
  80. Clinical examination of cancer patients.
  81. Local anesthesia and its types.
  82. The choice of anesthesia in surgery. Masque anesthesia. Complications in its conduct.
  83. Endotracheal Anesthesia. History. Indications and contraindications. Potentiation in anesthesia.
  84. Spinal anesthesia. Technique, indications and contraindications, complications.
  85. Parasitic diseases in surgery.
  86. Blood collection. The concept of "reinfusion" and "autoinfusion."
  87. Hospital infection. Prevention, treatment.
  88. Distinctive signs of cancer and sarcoma growth. Questions of deontology.

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